Orthotopic models | Oncodesign Services

Orthotopic Models

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Preclinical orthotopic tumors model can better recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME)


While many CDX and PDX tumors models grow subcutaneously in mice, sometimes a tumor model requires a specific kind of tumor microenvironment that can only be well recapitulated in the stroma of the primary organ. For example, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) liver cancer growing in liver are very well vascularized in comparison with HCC tumors growing subcutaneously, which might affect drug exposure and assumptions about metabolites. HCC is therefore a tumor type likely to benefit from orthotopic modeling. Bladder tumors at a primary tumor site contact urine and are subject to mechanical stress in a way that subcutaneous tumors do not, so orthotopic modeling of bladder cancer might be beneficial beyond SC modeling as well.

Oncodesign Services can manage up to 80 animals/day in orthotopic surgery and about the same number for in vivo imaging timepoints. MRI is typically used to size tumors for randomization and sometimes to track tumor growth. Orthotopic modeling requires in vivo imaging. Oncodesign Services has numerous in vivo imaging platforms, including MRI, PET, PET/MRI, SPECT and optical imaging to monitor tumor volume and pharmacological biomarkers.


Orthotopic models list:

Name Organ Histological Type Host rodent species
4T1 Breast Carcinoma transitional Balb/c Mouse
AY27 Bladder Carcinoma F344 Ficher Rat
C6 Brain Glioma Nude Rat
C6 Brain Glioma Wistar Rat
CT26 Colon Carcinoma Balb/c Mouse
EMT6 Breast Mammary Carcinoma Balb/c Mouse
GS-9L Brain Gliosarcoma F344 Ficher Rat
GV1A1 Brain Glioma BDIX Rat
Hepa1-6 Liver Hepatocarcinoma C57BI/6 Mouse
MBT-2 Bladder Carcinoma C3H Mouse
MBT-II Bladder Tumor Wistar Rat
NCTC 2472 Bone Sarcoma C3H Mouse
R3327H Prostate Adenocarcinoma Copenhagen Rat
Renca Kidney Carcinoma Balb/c Mouse
LS 174T Colon Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Nude Rat
MDA-MB-175 Breast Adenocarcinoma NOD SCID Mouse
NCI-H146 Lung carcinoma-SCLC Nude Rat
NCI-H209 Lung Carcinoma SCLC Nude Rat
NCI-H460 Lung Carcinoma-NSCLC Swiss Nude Mouse
NIH:OVCAR-3 Ovary Adenocarcinoma Nude Rat
PANC-1 Pancreas Carcinoma Nude Rat
PC-3 Prostate Adenocarcinoma Nude Rat
PC-3-MM2 Prostate Adenocarcinoma Nude Rat
RT-4 (CVE-4) Bladder Transitional papilloma Nude Rat
SK-BR-3 Breast Adenocarcinoma colorectal NOD SCID Mouse
SW-620 Colon Adenocarcinoma cb17 SCID Mouse
U-87 MG Brain Glioblastoma Nude Rat
U-87 MG Brain Glioblastoma Swiss Nude Mouse
U-87 MG Brain Glioblastoma NMRI Nude Mouse

Model example #1

The GL261 syngeneic mouse glioma model was injected orthotopically in the brains of mice.  The tumors were detected 8 days after implantation, by MRI.  The tumors were quantifiable with adequate animal health metrics for at least 15 days, with survival dropping after day 20.

Model example #2

The 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma model was injected into the mammary fat pad (MFP) in BALB/c mice.  Tumor size was measured by caliper and total tumor burden was counted after termination.  Indomethacin suppressed tumor growth a little, and halved the number of detectable lung metastases.